The 6to4 router uses a public IPv4 address to construct the 6to4 prefix and acts as an IPv6 advertising and forwarding router.The next-hop address is set to the destination address, and an interface index is chosen.Each entry defines a range of IP addresses for destinations that are directly reachable (neighbors).The first 32 bits are for the Teredo prefix, which is the same for all Teredo addresses.When an organization requires a block of IP addresses, a request is submitted and allocated IP addresses are assigned to a requested ISP.For all other IPv6 traffic, the ICS computer uses its default route and encapsulates the IPv6 traffic with IPv4 headers and sends the packets across the IPv4 Internet to a 6to4 relay router.This type of communication occurs when a 6to4 host forwards IPv6 traffic that is destined to a 6to4 host in another site to the 6to4 router for the local site.Multicast Listener Discovery is a series of three ICMPv6 messages that replace version 2 of the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) for IPv4 to manage subnet multicast membership.These core protocols replace the Internet layer protocols in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) model.
When a Neighbor Discovery message is received, the Hop Limit field in the IPv6 header is checked.In addition to using information provided by multicast routing protocols, routers use the multicast scope to determine whether they can forward multicast traffic.
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Additionally, IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling does not provide security for tunneled IPv6 packets.Although this might be possible in a small- or medium-sized organization, the challenge of making a rapid protocol transition in a large organization is very difficult.To determine whether a neighbor is reachable, IPv6 relies on either upper layer protocols that indicate communication progress or receipt of a Neighbor Advertisement message that has been sent in response to a unicast Neighbor Solicitation message.Check the local IPv6 routing table for the longest matching route to the destination address.
RFC 1981 recommends that IPv6 nodes support path MTU discovery.The process by which hosts discover the network prefixes for local link destinations.Although this method promotes hierarchical addressing and routing, it is not required.
The function getaddrinfo( ) resolves names to both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, depending on whether IPv4 and IPv6 is installed and which types of addresses the Domain Name System (DNS) name query returns.However, because of the way in which IPv6 multicast addresses are mapped to Ethernet multicast media access control (MAC) addresses, RFC 3513 recommends assigning the group ID from the low-order 32 bits of the IPv6 multicast address and setting the remaining original group ID bits to 0.IPv6 routers send Router Advertisement messages either periodically or in response to the receipt of Router Solicitation messages.Forming a fully qualified domain name and sending a DNS name query.
Therefore, a Teredo client in one site can send packets directly to a Teredo client in another site without the use of additional packets to establish NAT translation table entries.The Hop-by-Hop Options extension header contains the IPv6 Router Alert Option that RFC 2711 describes.Manually create an ISATAP address (A) record in the appropriate domain in DNS.
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Protocol transitions are typically deployed by installing and configuring the new protocol on all nodes within the network and verifying that all node and router operations work.If ICS is enabled on an interface that is assigned a public IPv4 address, the 6to4 component automatically.The Router Advertisement message indicates whether a stateful address configuration protocol should be used.By using only the low-order 32 bits, each group ID maps to a unique Ethernet multicast MAC address.Although the automatic resolution of the ISATAP name is the recommended method for configuring the IPv4 address of the ISATAP router, you can configure this address manually by using the netsh interface ipv6 isatap set router command.The Redirected Header option is sent in Redirect messages to specify the IPv6 packet that caused the router to send a Redirect message.To manually configure tunnels for the IPv6 protocol for Windows Server 2003, use the netsh interface ipv6 add v6v4tunnel command.Because neighbor unreachability detection determines that the router is no longer reachable, a new router is chosen immediately from the default router list.
When the NAT translation table entry is in place, inbound traffic to the external address and port number from any source address and port number is translated.For example, for the node with the link-local IPv6 address of FE80::2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A, the corresponding solicited-node address is FF02::1:FF28:9C5A.The connectivity to the IPv4 Internet can be through a public IPv4 address or through a private IPv4 address and a neighboring NAT.If the neighbor cache of the next-hop interface does not contain an entry that matches the next-hop address, use address resolution to obtain the link-layer address for the next-hop address.Connectionless means that a session is not established before data is exchanged.
The success of initial communication between Teredo clients that are located in different sites depends on whether those sites are using cone NATs or restricted NATs.Neighbor Discovery is a set of ICMPv6 messages and processes that determine relationships between neighboring nodes.TCP traffic to an IPv6 address is proxied to TCP traffic to an IPv4 address.Advertisement Lifetime is the time after which the router, upon sending its last Router Advertisement message, can be considered unavailable.Pairing of IP address to a geographical location is called geolocation.IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling is the encapsulation of IPv6 packets with an IPv4 header so that IPv6 packets can be sent over an IPv4 infrastructure.You may also use products developed by 3rd party companies like Ip2location.Set the Hop Limit value to either a default or application-specified value.Sent by a router to inform a sending host that a packet is too large to forward.
The following figure shows how 6to4 is configured for different types of hosts running Windows Server 2003 (except IPv6 host D).The resulting IPv6 address, based on this random interface identifier, is known as a temporary or anonymous address.